Many scholars defined it many ways but all is centered on the act of passing information from one person to another.

According to (Davies 1977). Communication in the process of-passing information & understanding from one person to another. Also, Onasanya (1990), Communication means that the objective of the sender of any messages is understood by the receiver the very way the sender intends the message to be.

Eyre (1982) defined communication as the transmission, reception of messages or idea form one party to another in such a fashion that is mutually understandable. Communication is giving and receiving information with the objective of creating understanding and acceptable


It  enables  vital  information   to   passed   from  one person to another
It forms the basis of direction 85 leadership because instructions                                                          are communicated  on  duties/   responsibilities  achieve set goals.
It helps in the coordination of functional areas of institution: sales, production, personnel etc.
It reduces the chances of high incidence of industrial unrest which may end in loss of labour hours
It promotes good understating mutual cooperation   between employees and employers.
Communication enhances cross fertilization of wear   between employees; employers or 2 parties
Good communication ensures improved    public relations & images for the organization.
Good communication creates awareness and impacts knowledge.

Communication in any organization can take 3 forms or method namely:

*         Oral or Verbal communication

*         Written

*         Non verbal

Oral or Verbal Communication

This is the most common form of communication both within or outside, the organization. It is very convenient to almost everybody provided the language is adequately understood by both parties From of Oral Communication are:

1.       Face to face discussion

2.       Interview (personnel dept)

3.       Meeting, Seminar & Conference

4.       Telephone system

5.       Radiographic (Inter com &

6.       Public address system

7.       Joint consultation (trade union employers)

8.       Traveler & representatives

Written Communication

Communication in writing involves only the literate people or illiterate that have literate who can interpret the message for them. Written comment has the advantage of storing message for future use provided the written document is preserved. It is also useful for communicating people who are very much distance or far away from the sender in or the message.

Forms of W.C.

a. Letters (Official/Formal letters e.g. Application, Permission assent from work)
b.       Informal letter arc purely private or persona’ letters

Memorandum internal or within organization
Circulars: both within & outside organization
Reports: Annual report in organization
Bulletin: within organization to keep members of organization up todate in with company development
Correspondence between business partners and customers (incoming and Outgoing)
Minutes of the meeting
Policy and procedure manuals provide information and instruction for employee and lay down standard rules and procedures
Suggestion scheme/ Boxes.
Non-Verbal Communication

This   is   otherwise   Known   as   body   language   by   many scholars: Forms

Signs & symbols
Body communication

Educational and cultural background of both sender and the receiver
Inaudibility; inability to get the message clearly
Unaccustomed vocabulary or technical jargon
Biased mind or pre-judgement of an issue by one of the parties
Accent or pronunciation
Lack of cordial relationship between the two parties
Lack of attentiveness
Intelligence/state of the mind (bereaved persons or insane)

Always make efforts to clarify your ideas
Examine the real purpose of each communication
Consider all possible setting in your environment whether physical or human.
When necessary, consult with others before communicating so as to gain more insight into the issue.
Be mindful of your language, tone, action contents and reaction of your listener.
Get a feedback: follow up your receiver’s reaction and performance, response.
Communicate whether the message is negative or positive; do not propone any message for too long.
Endeavour to be understood by all receiver and also seek to understand them by being a good listener.
Sender must have up-to-date information to pass across.

Organizations cannot operate without communication. Communication can take various forms but all forms involve the transfer of information from one party to the other. In order for the transfer of information to qualify as communication, the recipient must understand the meaning of the information transferred to them. If the recipient does not understand the meaning of the information conveyed, communication has not taken place.

Communication is the life source of organizations because organizations involve people. People cannot interact with each other without communication. In the absence of communication, everything would grind to a halt.

E. C. Eyre (1983) says that “communication is not just the giving of information, it is the process of giving understandable information and receiving and understanding the message”. Communication is the transferring of a message to another party so that it can be understood and acted upon.

Sybil James et al (1990) postulates that communication is the lubricant that keeps the machinery of the organization functioning. To them, “it is the means through which roles are identified and assigned; and the life blood in any organized business”.

On the whole, people are able to communicate with each other, as” this is a basic human function. However, successful organization strives not only for communication but effective communication.


Communication to a business organization is to effect changes and influence actions towards the organization’s operations. Business all over the world requires information about the business cycle and government activities. The general purpose of communication in an organization is as follows:

To establish and disseminate information about the goals of an organization.
To organize human and material resources in the most effective and efficient way.
Communication also ensures the selection development and appraisal of   members in the organization
Communication has the purpose of facilitating the exchange of ideas and skills in the organization.
Communication  also  relates  the  enterprise  to  its external environment.
Regulations of government regarding what to produce and what not to produce are brought to the notice of the company through communication.

According to Goldhaber (1983) he anchors the significance of communication as a process on an observation that the phenomenon of creating and exchanging messages is on going, ever changing and continuous. It is therefore imperative to see communication process as primarily involving acting, reaction and interaction.

In one-way communication, the sender transmits a message, the receiver gets it and the process is complete. On the other hand, in two-way communication, however, the sender transmits a message, the receiver gets it, and subsequently the receiver responds with another message. The process may continue with the sender and receiver alternating roles, giving one another feedback. Conversations and business correspondence are examples of two-way communication.

Also See:  Definition Of An Office


Upward Communication

Upward communication is feedback of data or information from lower levels in the organization to upper-management levels. This communication usually deals with problems, clarifications, attitudes, ideas and accomplishments. To encourage upward communication managers use suggestion systems, attitude surveys, team meetings, compliant procedures and committees.

Downward Communication

On the other hand, follows the organization’s formal chain of command from top to bottom. This communication covers procedures, policies, goals, assignments and directives. One concern with downward communication is that the message might decrease in accuracy as it passes through the chain of command, for that reason, managers use written materials such as employees handbooks, policy manuals, organizational newsletters, bulletin boards, videos and meetings to clearly communicate downward within the organization.

Lateral Communication

Also known as horizontal communication, is communication that occurs between departments or functional units, usually as a coordination or problem-solving effort. Organizations can set up short-term task forces to allow for colleagues to discuss unique projects, or they can set up more long-term committees for counterparts to get together and discuss a particular organizational concern or issue on an ongoing basis throughout the year.

Formal Communication-Channel

It is defined as communication, which occurs through the official organizational channels, or it’s undertaken by an employee to do their job. For example official meetings, letters, and a manager asking an employee to carryout a particular tasks.

Informal Communication-Channel

Conversely informal communication is that which occurs outside the recognized communication networks such as talking in the lunchroom or hallways between employees. Informal communication can be productive or negative. It has the potential to build teams, improve working relationships and generate ides as employees are in a relaxed environment.

Diagonal Communication

This occurs when communication occurs between workers in a different section of the organization and where one of the workers involved is on a higher level in the organization. For example in a bank diagram, communication will occur when a department manager in head office converses with a cashier in a branch of the bank based on the high street.


The grapevine involves transmission of information by word of mouth without regard for organizational levels, and it often provides a great deal of useful information. Unfortunately, however, the grapevine can also distort information, create resentment, and work against organizational plans and objectives.

Elements or Variables of Communication

The elements, which must be present in a communication letting, are as follows:

Stimulus: This factor sets in motion, or triggers the whole process.
Source: The initiator of the action.
Message: The idea, information, feeling, emotion on attitude being transmitted.
Medium: The major means of reaching the target audience-oral, written, visual or non verbal.
Channel: The specific (mostly man made) method or device   of   getting   the   message   across   airwaves, microphone, radio and TV, newspaper and magazine, paintings, standard drawings and charts.
Transmission: The act of sending the message.
Receiver:   The   target   audience   or   the   intended recipient.    He    constitutes    the    most    important variable.  The  receiver’s  perception  of the  process determines the level of….
Methods of Communication

The more international business becomes, the more important it is to recognize differences among people from different cultures, because these differences affect good communication. By taking advantage of opportunities to communication outside over own cultural boundaries, we will become better communicators.

One of the most common forms of written messages used by businesses to communicate with people and organization outside the firm
The standard letter parts are letterhead, date, inside address, salutation, body, complimentary close and signature line.
The primary medium of written communication within companies. Memos are informal and provide a rapid, convenient means of communication between workers.
The increased use of e-mail is lessening the use of memos within organizations. The standard heading for memos includes to, from, date and subject
These are documents that analyze and evaluate organizational activities of all kind and provide critical information for decision making
In preparing a report, follow these steps:

i. Plan the report,

ii.Collect the data,

Organize the data and
Draft the report
These official records of meetings list the items discussed, the results of votes, and the person responsible for carrying out any follow-up steps
Minutes should be clear, correct, informative, factual and free of judgmental words.
A document that suggest a method for finding information or solving a problem. Proposals must be persuasive.
Typically, a proposal answers questions such as what problem you are going to solve, how you are going to solve it, when you’ll complete the work and how much you will charge.
A document that is a record of travel plans
Typically, an itinerary includes date, time, location of departures and arrivals, and hotel and car rented details.


The mailroom technology field is one of the fastest growing, thanks in part of new software applications and in part to the impetus provided by the “1996 Mail Classification Reform in USA”, the most sweeping changes in mail in the last century.

Most businesses rely heavily on communicating with their customers and clients. Efficient mail systems are designed and set up in organizations to ensure cost effectiveness and efficiency, thereby delivering better service to customers.

For companies to process mail accurately and efficiently, each employees should be trained in the process of incoming and outgoing mail procedures.

Incoming mail  – Sort the mail

– Open the mail

– Date and time stamp the mail

– Read and annotate the mail

– Prioritize and arrange the mail

– Perform other activities such as

attaching related materials, using

action-requested slips, ………..

– Keeping a mail register.

Outgoing mail  – Assemble the mail in proper order if

there is more than one page

– Make sure the letter has been signed.

– Check that any enclosures have been

included with the letter.

– Verify that the address on the letter

and the address on the envelope are

the same.

– Select       the       appropriate       mail

classification from among first class,

second    class,    third    class,    fourth

class, or express mail.

2 thought on “Effective Communication”
  1. Please you need to update the date of the definition of those authors about the definition of communication

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