TELECOMMUNICATION SERVICES AND MANAGEMENT
In the past, the telephone and postal services were the means of communication. Nowadays, many more means of communication are in use. Among them are telephone, electronic mails, computer, internet etc.
Business-life today would be inconceivable and Herculean task without the telephone services. About a decade ago in Nigeria, telephone services were monopolized by Nigerian Telecommunication Limited (NITEL)
and its subsidiary (MTEL) both providing fixed line services and mobile cellular functions. Their services were only for the well-to-do business tycoons, chief executive officers, powerful political appointees, top brass in military and paramilitary; foreign envoys, articulate bankers and industrial monguls. Members of academic community and dedicated civil servants were unable to own one due to their poor status and irregular take home pockets. Multi-links was the only recognized private service provider then, and the services provided were very limited and reservations of the riches as listed above. Then, the charges were made by combination of a fixed monthly, rental and payments which depended on numbers and lengths of the calls, distances over which they are made and the time of the day at which they were made.
By 2001, the monopoly status enjoyed by NITEL was broken by Olusegun Obasanjo administration and thereby licensed private firms to invest in telecommunication industry. That singular act gave birth to tie first three (3) companies to be licensed to carry out Global System of Mobile telecommunication (GSM). The three successful companies then were: MTN, MTEL and ECONET (later CELTEL, now ZAIN). The code for them are: MTN (0803) MTEL (0804) and then ECONET (0802)
As at December 2008 in Nigeria, we have over ten (10) private telecommunication providers both on Global System Mobile telecommunication and fixed land lines. Among them are MTN, ZAIN, GLOBALCOM, ZOOM (formerly Reltel), Etisalat, Visafone,’ Multilink, Oduatel e.t.c
Most subscribers to all the networks are linked to the subscriber trunk dialing (S.T,D) system, which enable one subscriber to dial direct to another on the system.
IMPORTANCE OP TELEPHONE
The most importance aspect of telephone is that it enhances passing of information from one person to another.
It facilitates business transaction
It bridges distance between two parties
It encourages good human relationship among parties involved
It improves public relation and image of the organization.
There are many forms of telephone services. Modern telephone switchboard are computerized. This allows automatic redialing, logging of calls made, automatic qeuing system, playing music to waiting callers.
Also, portable (mobile) phones are becoming more popular. They allow people traveling to keep in touch with their base. Furthermore, paging systems are alternatives. These give out a beep to tell the carrier to call their offices.
Also, there is phone answering machine that can equally tape callers’ messages
THE FAX MACHINE: Fax machines are essential office equipment. They are used, to transmit and receive copies of documents. The sending fax machine scans a sheet of paper and converts it into digital signal.
A modern is used to transmit these along the telephone line. At the receiving end, a thermal printer build up a pattern of black and white on heat sensitive paper according to the Os and is in the digital signal.
TELEPHONE FACILITATING EQUIPMENT MODEM: This is an acronym that stand for: MODulator plus DEModulator. This is a device which change a digital signal into analogue sigrii and vice-versa. Moderns can be built into a computers aid fax machine or connected to them separately. Modem;, are necessary because telephone lines are originally for spech (vice) transmission and were not assigned for use by computer. Modem over the years have got faster and smaller.
The first pocket sized potable modem was in the market in the late 1983. And today moderns, are of the size of credit cards and are available for slipping into a specially designed socket in a portable computer.
W.A.N.S: This simply me^is Wide Area Networks. They are formed by computers link&i via telephone line, the computer may be separate buildings Or in separate part of the world. WANS may be used for internal communication (between parts of an organization) or external communication with other businesses. For WANS as well as computer, the following equipment would be retired: a modem, telephone, communication soft wart that allows the computer to communicate with modern.
PRBSTEL: This is a system that allows a subscriber to have information extracted from a computer and displayed on an adopted television set. The subscriber can dial into about two hundred thousand (200,OOC) pages of information on a wide range of subject and thus providing business with valuable
checks on things as commodity prices, interest rates and foreign exchange rages and so on.
MICROWAVES: Are very short radio waves. They can be transmitted for short distance over land from one repeater state to another.
TELEX SERVICE: This enables a subscriber to transmit the same message to up to one-thousand (1000) destinations after feeding the message into the machine only once. The message can equally be personalized if need be, for each person or recipient. Telex plus equally have automatic system to confirm delivery.
TELETEX: This is latest model. It is of high-speed transmission with very top quality documents between terminal similar to word processor or electronic typewriter. Under this, a fax machine scans documents and send signals down the telephone system to the destination where the receiving fax machine can covert them back to the original form within second. Teletex can transmit diagram, photographs as well as handwritten, typed and printed tests.
DATEL SERVICE: This provide a mean of transmitting information from one computer to another, using the public telephone network where a business organization has a substantial or continuous need for such a service, private line or networks can be provided to meet the requirements. TELECONFERENCING: The rapid expansion of the world’s telecommunication network now allow business men in any part of the world to hold meeting without the need and expense of traveling to an agreed location. There is a video conferencing as v/ell as audio conferencing. The videoconferencing is more expensive because it allows for drawings or plans to be seen. Audio-conferencing can take up to twenty (20) different locations across the globe.
SATELITE COMMUNICATION: As far as international links are concerned, their growth depends on the use of satellite orbiting the earth. There are about three (3) international groups responsible for the satellite system.
(a) International telecom satellite organization (INTELSAT)
(b) International marine satellite organization (INMARSAT)
(c) European telecom Satellite group (EUTELSAL)
INTERNET: This is a vast international network of all networks. It enables computer to share information and communicate directly word-wide. Information can be gathered or obtained from organizations, libraries, universities, research laboratories, etc,
EMAIL: Electronic mail is the transfer of text letters, memos, reports) between computer users; communication may be one to one or from one to many that is, one person is sending a message to many people connected to the networks.
E.D.I: Means electronic data interchanging, this is a form of e-mail which allows the passing of orders, invoices and other transactions between company’s computers. It avoids the problem of traditional based communication system in which documents are presented out by the sender; posted and keyed in again by the receiving company.
OTHER RELATED COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
SUBSCRIBER TRUNK DIALING: This system enables a caller to dial the phone number he requires without the services of an operator. When the system is used for overseas telephone users or subscribers, it is called INTERNATIONAL SUBSCRIBER
DIALLING (ISD). Charges for S.T.D services vary according to distance involved and the time of the day call is made as well as the length of the call. However, S.T.D calls are cheaper when compared with other calls especially those assisted by an operator.
PRIVATE MANUAL BRANCH EXCHANGE: This system enables calls both internal and external to be made only with the assistance of the switchboard operator. The switchboard may becord or level operated.
PRIVATE BRANCH EXCHANGE: This is a private telephone system within an organization. It is an internal telephone system which has a switchboard, and gives automatic button or dial connection between extension in the organization e.g. inter com. Internal communication system (INTERCOM) ensures that information from one office to another flows easily with an organization.
PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM: This is otherwise known as loudspeaker. It is used mostly in factories, lecture hall or halls of resident for students. To call attention of the staffer student or pass information across.
LIGHT SIGNAL: This is a system where by those members concerned in an organization are given numbers and whenever attention of anyone of them is needed, his or her number is lighted as a signal.
RADIO CALL SYSTEM: Every top member of official with crucial assignment is given a portable radio receiver when the attention of such person is required, his receiver is lit and get the message quick via the radio or telephone. Hospitals use it to get doctor’s attention for urgent job or emergency, so also the top management who is on leave or not on duty to turn for crucial meeting or urgent need.
TWO-WAY RADIO-SYSTEM: This enables the receiver to give reply to the caller on his radio receiver. Security agents (police, immigration, intelligent officers, fire fighters, custom officers, military intelligent etc) site engineers and construction workers are some of users involved. It is very expensive and has some operating limitations.